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Showing posts from 2019

Can we program AI

Computer programming is an awesome system, look at the world around us and tell me what you think. Of all the awesome ways we have applied computer programming the most important is the possibility of building real Strong artificial intelligence.

Modern Masters: Steve Jobs

Source: Forbes Who is he? Now Late, Jobs was the CEO of Apple computer. He is most noted as the visionary behind the iPod amongst many other innovative products. Read the post for my take on him.

The informative power of Computation

Starting from simple lumped matter abstractions like transistors we have been able to build a huge global computing infrastructure that has improved our earthly existence in many ways. But what I want to bring our attention to currently is that the process of abstraction through which we built this infrastructure can also inform us as to the fundamental nature of the physical universe and even our intelligence.

The power of symbols

A symbol is a representation of some underlying complexity. It compresses information by allowing us to deal with a more compact representation of some underlying structure than the whole structure itself.

Is Nature discrete or continuous?

Source:*X3E3vZQqdsbWk3wDJcBFKg.jpeg So far there is no objective evidence that nature is discrete at the lowest possible levels, but using my right to theorize I would say that when we go deep enough we will discover that nature is discrete and discontinuous. On second thought we might never even be able to observe the ultimate discreteness of nature because of some fundamental law preventing us from observing this.

The Ultimate Revelation of Quantum Mechanics

By! Original: NekoJaNekoJaVector: Johannes Kalliauer - File:Double-slit.PNG, CC BY-SA 4.0, I have been studying Quantum Mechanics for some time now in lieu of my desire to understand Quantum Computing and I have come to a realization of one very fundamental revelation.

Happy 60th Birthday Stephen Wolfram!

Happy Birthday Stephen Wolfram! A short essay of my experience with this great mind I was always filled with self-doubt before I met Stephen Wolfram in 2017. I had studied so much for so many years but had been unable to express my knowledge to the world especially in the form of writing. I would write and discard my work so many times because I felt it was not good enough. When I got invited to the Wolfram Summer School (WSS17), my life took a quantum leap from that moment.

Animal Intelligence

Most current Artificial Intelligence efforts are geared at replicating aspects of intelligence that we humans share with animals.

Europe goes quantum

Finnish startup IQM , which is developing quantum computing hardware, has raised an €11.45m seed round from a group of investors including, MIG Funds, OpenOcean, Tesi (the Finnish industrial investment fund), and Vito Ventures. Europe VCs eye quantum computing

At the edge of a cliff - Quantum Computing

Source: Quantum computing reminds me of the early days of computer development (the 50s - 60s) where we had different companies come up with their different computer architectures. You had to learn how to use one architecture then move to another then another as you hoped to explore different systems that were better for one task than they were for another task.  

From Novice to AI with Wolfram Language

I taught a full course on Wolfram Language programming, Computational Thinking and Artificial Intelligence in just 3 days!! That is 3 days to go from total Wolfram language programming novice to eventually training models using the robust automated artificial intelligence system included in Mathematica.

Next Steps Towards Strong Artificial Intelligence

What is Intelligence? Pathways to Synthetic Intelligence If you follow current AI Research then it will be apparent to you that AI research, the deep learning type has stalled! This does not mean that new areas of application for existing techniques are not appearing but that the fundamentals have been solved and things have become pretty standardized.

What is Intelligence: Human Intelligence

Human Intelligence What really is human intelligence? I am not a fan of lifting other peoples definitions unless they resonate with me. People can make definite statements of certain things like in physics where we know that the definition of force is given by the equation F = MA, which is not revocable no matter how you contest it. It is a fact stated in math. It’s a fact as strong as 2 + 2 = 4. You cannot create another answer for 2 + 2 = 4 using the standard understanding of the basic arithmetic operators. You can create another operator that defines addition in a different way but the basic arithmetic operator cannot be changed.

What is Intelligence: Software writing Software

Sometimes I wonder why programmers are hell-bent on writing programs that can communicate in natural language and not even putting adequate effort into writing programs that write other programs. Maybe is because of the natural tendency to protect one's source of livelihood by not attempting to automate it away or maybe because writing programs is hard enough such that contemplating of writing some program that writes programs might be even harder.

What is Intelligence: IQ Tests

IQ TESTS IQ tests were designed to assess individual capabilities for performing highly specialized tasks/jobs in society. it is the outcrop of a very narrow definition of intelligence which ignores large a swath of many other capabilities of the human mind. I guess Shakespeare would score high on verbal fluency and low on numerical skills.

What is Intelligence: Cellular Intelligence

CELLULAR INTELLIGENCE Hebbian learning has eaten the world! Many people don’t want to know what is going on in the cell body of the Neuron. We have all narrowed our thinking to focus on connection strengths alone. Although modern deeplearning systems look nothing like human brains, the root idea behind the neural network based systems was that the human brain learns by adjusting connection strengths between brain cells. This core idea has been abstracted away to what we have now but it is still the root dimension that began this whole race of neural networks. In general, it is called the connectionist view of intelligence.

What is Intelligence: Patterns

PATTERNS What one person calls a pattern is very different from what another person refers to as one. Can we arrive at some kind of general idea of what a pattern is? It is my attempt to do so in plain words in this section.

What is Intelligence: Brain and Mind

BRAIN AND MIND The brain is the hardware and the mind is the software! Many people will ask what programming language the mind is written in but I don't think that question is as important as it sounds. If we think of the brain as all there is then we will fall into the trap of thinking that by replicating it we will have something that thinks. The brain is only physical hardware, albeit a very advanced one.

Building Human Centered AI with the Wolfram Neural Net Repository

The first phase of Modern AI is grinding to a halt. The PhDs have trained neural networks for doing all kinds of tasks for us. Everything from image recognition, audio synthesis, language modelling and translation already have some prebuilt deep neural net already in existence engineered from deep learning papers. Now it is time for the second phase of Modern AI development which involves using all these pre-built stuff as building blocks for Human Centered AI applications, that is applications that have AI as some submodule to perform some task.

What is Intelligence: The Wright Brothers

THE WRIGHT BROTHERS Every AI researcher should meditate on the invention of the aeroplane by the Wright brothers because what we intend to create is no different or less fundamental than mechanical powered flight. It is educative to watch the history of man’s attempt to replicate the flight of birds. The painful aspect of it is that non of the ingenious inventors including no one less than Leonardo DaVinci himself could foresee that the internal combustion engine was the single key to unleashing mechanical powered flight and not the attempt to replicate the flight of birds.

What is Intelligence: Evolution of Intelligence

EVOLUTION OF INTELLIGENCE Imagine a large laboratory where billions of beakers are holding different mixtures of elements and molecules prepared by some invisible agent or process. Some beakers explode some evaporate away, while some become sweet smelling some become very toxic, etc. now imagine that the agent/process just adds new elements and molecules to different beakers sometimes takes the content of one beaker and mixes it within another beaker or bunch of beakers.

What is Intelligence: Limitations of current neural networks

Limitations of current neural networks The biggest limitation of current neural networks is that they need enormous amounts of input data to properly generalize the data. To properly generalize data like images of dogs, cats or whatever we need millions to billions of instances of these data classes to train the network to be able to identify species of dogs or species of cats. It is clear that the human being requires very little input data to enable it to identify what is a dog and what is a cat, this is because it uses its imagination to generate all kinds of variations of the input data internally so it doesn't need so much input.

Announcing the FREE Wolfram Language Engine

The power of a programming language lies in the size and quality of the libraries available for it. When learning computer programming the student is exposed first of all to the syntax of the language which takes a great amount of time to come grips with for the newbie but can easily be grasped in a shorter period of time by the veteran.

What is intelligence: Search! The Algorithm of intelligence

Search! The Algorithm of intelligence I have previously talked about the network being the best representation for all kinds of problems and thus equivalent to what we can call general intelligence. My argument is that if we can find the most general representation of any problem whatsoever then we have discovered general intelligence because then it will be only a matter of manipulating the structure of this representation to solve any problem.

What is Intelligence: Human Brain vs. Artificial Neural Network Representation

 Human Brain vs. Artificial Neural Network Representation In regular programming, we usually write code in text form, but this code eventually gets transformed through several layers to a representation that the computer hardware can deal with, which are numbers. Basically just 1 and 0. But in reality, the computer doesn’t know what a number is and it is the humans who interpret the discrete states of the computer hardware as 1 and 0. There is no symbol 1 and 0 imprinted anywhere on the computer circuit, the computer circuit performs its operation on several circuit components that can be in any of the binary states of high or low voltages, it is the human who interprets these states as 1 and 0 thus ascribing a symbol to the lumped matter abstraction of computer circuitry.

What is Intelligence: Equivalence of different neural architectures

Equivalence of different neural architectures There are so many neural net architectures targeting one goal, for instance, you have VGG16, LeNet, ResNet, etc. All targeted at one goal, Image Identification. I have always puzzled about this, why is it that widely differing architectures are designed to achieve the same goal, i.e. image identification.

What is Intelligence: Learning in Humans

LEARNING IN HUMANS When humans are presented with information in their environment without a tag, this information could be about static stuff like trees, cats, cloud formations, etc. or it could be about dynamic processes like observing the seasons, the flight of birds, the swimming of fish or about other humans or entities performing some actions, the first thing the observing human mind does is to form an internal representation of whatever is being observed.

What is Intelligence: Neural Architecture Search

NEURAL ARCHITECTURE SEARCH In the early days of neural network research, human engineers were tasked with coming up with network architectures to achieve their goals. Nowadays there is some pioneering work on Neural architecture search where computers are used to search for useful networks that achieve better performance than architectures that were designed by human beings.

What is Intelligence: The Higher Magic of Pre-Built nets.

THE HIGHER MAGIC OF PRE-BUILT NETS We have reached a peak in terms of developing neural networks that solve basic kinds of problems. When a neural network is trained, which is usually a computationally expensive process that hugs huge amount of resources and can run for weeks, we obtain a set of weights which are the products of the training process.

Stephen Wolfram explains clearly how a Computational language differs from a Programming language

A 3D plot showing the positions of  Mars for the next 18 months from now: May 9th 2019 A computational language tries to intrinsically be able to talk about whatever one might think about in a computational way—while a programming language is set up to intrinsically talk only about things one can directly program a computer to do. So for example, a computational language can intrinsically talk about things in the real world—like the planet Mars or New York City or a chocolate chip cookie. A programming language can intrinsically talk only about abstract data structures in a computer.

What is Intelligence: Alien Intelligence

ALIEN INTELLIGENCE This work is about intelligence so it is necessary to contemplate what alien intelligence might be like even though we haven't encountered any till date. There are those that say humans are the only intelligent beings in the universe, but I think that is not correct and that the size of the universe in comparison with the size of the earth makes the possibility of conscious (using this word in the way it is understood regularly) beings might inhabit other worlds or places.

Learn Wolfram Mathematica in the cloud part 3

Most of the time in programming we don't just have single values to deal with because sometimes things come in a collection and we need something to hold them together. This is where lists come in.

What is Intelligence: Computational Equivalence

COMPUTATIONAL EQUIVALENCE ArrayPlot[ CellularAutomaton[<|"Dimension" -> 2, "GrowthCases" -> {3, 6}|>, {{Table[1, 5]}, 0}, {{{200}}}]] Almost all processes that are not obviously simple can be viewed as computations of equivalent sophistication (Wolfram 2002, pp. 5 and 716-717). As we talk of building intelligent machines one might stop to think about if it is even possible to build intelligent machines in the first place. There is a story from the history of mathematics and I will not go ahead to elaborate it in details but just call to mind the salient points and the lessons we can learn from that as we go ahead to try to build intelligent machines.

Learning Wolfram Mathematica in the Cloud Part 2

In the previous post, we got introduced to the symbolic nature of the Wolfram Language and also experimented with code live on the cloud. If you didn't see that post look for the post with the title above but without a part number on this blog. So let us get on with today's lesson.

Stephen Wolfram gives us a peek into the future: A world run with Code!

Computational languages vs. Programming Languages. Ubiquitous computational intelligence, The force of computation, computational contracts, and more. With a lifetime spent building one of the largest computational structures of our civilization, Wolfram Mathematica , Stephen Wolfram is highly qualified to give us hints as to where our technological civilization is taking us. See more by following the link:

What is Intelligence: Mind Space

MIND SPACE The physical human brain is just hardware for simulating what I call a mind space. If we borrow an analogy from computer architecture, we will see that the human brain is just basic hardware for implementing what we can call the machine architecture, which is built from the neurons and connections, and also with all other stuff going on like neurotransmitters etc.

Learning Wolfram Mathematica in the Cloud!

I am starting a mini blog series where I will teach you how to program in the Wolfram Language using the Wolfram cloud if you don't have a Mathematica desktop installation. Each blog post will contain a very short lesson that can be read in 5 minutes or less. I may sometimes include exercises which I encourage you to try out.

What is Intelligence: The AI Artist

Brooklyn Bridge Styled by THE AI ARTIST When AI researchers try to train a model to do art, for example, visual art in the form of painting, they train the model with all available images of artworks in order to produce new art. The art produced in this manner is of very low quality and despite the hype appears meaningless to many true artists. Does this mean that AI will never be able to do art? Not at all, AI will eventually be able to create true works of art, we just have to understand more of what goes on in the mind of the typical human being not just artists and we will be able to build systems that create art.

What is Intelligence: Beyond Images

BEYOND IMAGES So far we have been talking about Convolutional Neural Networks as applied to problems of image classification and I have mentioned recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in passing in previous chapters, but we must be wondering how humans learn information that is not static like images but sequential in nature. Information that may be spatially (in space) or temporally (in time) related?

What is Intelligence: Abstraction

ABSTRACTION The pattern recognition system of the human mind basically operates by the process of abstraction. In deep learning, we would call this feature extraction or generalization.

What is Intelligence: Representation

REPRESENTATION These days in AI research the word representation is being tossed around a lot, but it is important that we gain a deep understanding of what representation is as it is the key to understanding what the underlying intelligence of a human mind actually is.

The best language for data science

If I had not seen Wolfram language then I would have said: LISP is the best language to do data science. But thankfully Stephen Wolfram sought a general method of dealing with complicated integrals and built Wolfram language to do so. It turns out that this symbolic language called Wolfram language could  do more than math, after all, math is the lingua franca for science, which is our best method for describing the World and thus any language that enables you to do math in the most efficient way without adding too much "fat" would be the best language.

This powerful CEO works remotely, visits the office only a few times a year

To explain my personal infrastructure, I first have to say a bit about my daily life. Something that often surprises people is that for 28 years I’ve been a remote CEO. I’m about as hands-on a CEO as they come. But I’m only physically “in the office” a few times a year. Mostly I’m just at home, interacting with the company with great intensity—but purely through modern virtual means

What is Intelligence: A pass at creativity

A PASS AT CREATIVITY The human mind viewed in a certain way consists of a simple table lookup system that maps stored patterns to a menu of possible actions, and while many may frown at this simplistic view we must realize that it is by looking at the simplest possible model of things that we can really understand them. When we scrape away most of the details we can see the barebones implementation, understand them and then start adding sophistication.

What is Intelligence: Deep Learning

DEEP LEARNING The power of deep learning is in its ability to generalize patterns, in its most common application in image recognition, it takes an image and generalizes away the details of the image in a lossy way to arrive at the most abstract representation of that image such that when an image that possesses the same features as the one being generalized is presented to it, it recognizes it as the same image because it possesses the same features. This is very powerful and it is close to the way humans actually perform pattern recognition.

What is Intelligence: Electronic Computers

ELECTRONIC COMPUTERS With the availability of electricity, an agent charged with solving a sudoku puzzle by applying the greatest amount of intelligence possible will opt for the construction of a mechanical system that goes beyond the manual application of labour towards one where motive power is supplied by the agency of electricity.

What is intelligence: What is intelligence?

What is intelligence? I will define intelligence not by using more words but by describing the actions of an intelligent entity, system or model. This is a far better approach because definitions in a natural language just try to use different words with which we are more familiar to describe terminology which we are not familiar with. Rather than following that approach which in most cases leaves us more confused than we started I will rather describe the actions of intelligence. I am writing this book with a special focus on people actively working in the field of Strong Artificial Intelligence (towards AGI type) because it seems the biggest problem in that field is actually describing the problem that they seek to solve. People in other fields who are curious about the question of Intelligence both natural and artificial are also welcome.

What is Intelligence: Introduction

Introduction This book is filled with wild ideas! It is a product of long-term brooding over the topic of Intelligence and most especially how to build it. The thoughts contained in this work have consumed me for the greater part of my life on earth and I think it is about time I share it with the world.

The illusion of solidity

We experience the physical world solidly. We touch a wall, we hold a cup and we feel the wetness of water but in reality, we are experiencing nothing because even the atoms upon which the physical world is based on is 99% space.

Programming Enlightenment through Wolfram language

I have walked the path of programming and computers for many years and I have come to some very deep revelations about the core structure of computation most of which I had encoded in my book on programming available on Amazon . But what I want to talk about today is about the enlightenment that comes to those who know how to program in the Wolfram Language.

What concept of time would AI posses

As human beings, we have some kind of time sense governing our actions. We know that we have a limited time on earth and we also have clocks and calendars governing our actions. We don't just free flow through infinite space-time, we have another kind of pseudo measure in our minds that govern how we plan our lives and execute our task.

#Wolfram language 12: The next paradigm of computational power

I get surprised and get philosophical when I think of the enormous computational power you can gain if you only decided to use the right tools. Programming should be fun and enjoyable but the reality is that with a poorly designed language and loosely connected tools programming ends up being like hard labour. Wolfram language remains the most elegant and sophisticated language for doing any kind of computation, be it Artificial Intelligence, Machine learning, Blockchain, etc. Read the full blogpost lunching the latest version 12 @ Wolfram Language Version 12

AI is just Data Science

Most of modern AI is just data science. In the early days when we did what we now refer to as  GOFAI (Good Old Fashioned AI), we tried to give computers the ability to match humans in solving problems that were strictly in the domain of human cognition.

Math vs. Code view in AI

How you study AI will influence how capable you are in solving AI related problems. There are 2 approaches to studying and understanding AI and Machine learning in general, the Math view and the Code view.

Short Focus, Long Focus and Discipline

I have been trying to find out what makes some people more successful than others. And although there are factors like being born into the right family and sheer luck, I have found out that to be successful requires a certain combination of factors that almost always seem to produce great results and thus are kind of like more responsible for success in any endeavour than those given by happenstance.

How to become an AI researcher

Artificial Intelligence is all the rage these days. Everyone is getting on the bandwagon but there seems to be a shortage of AI researchers everywhere these days. Although many people are talking about doing AI not many people are actually doing AI research.

A new paradigm of Software Engineering

In this Blog Post,   Andrej Karpathy   Director of AI at Tesla talks about a new paradigm of software engineering which he calls software 2.0. In it, he talks about software 1.0 which is the manual kind of programming we have been doing till now and software 2.0 as the automatic means through which we solve problems traditionally in the domain of software 1.0 with optimization algorithms like back-propagation.

How to gain knowledge

When we want to gain knowledge about some field, the first thing we do is study it by probably picking up a book, a video course, audio material or some other kind of presentation. We can gain knowledge through all these means but there are certain techniques that might not be obvious that can enable us to gain solid knowledge, the kind we can pass to another.

Software of the future

From the appearance of the first programmable computer, the software has evolved in power and complexity. We went from manually toggling electronic switches to loading punch cards and eventually entering C code on the early PDP computers. Video screens came in and empowered the programmer very much, rather than waiting for printouts to debug our programs, we were directly manipulating code on the screen.

How the next AI winter will happen

From the excessive hype going on about artificial intelligence, it is obvious that we are in a bubble and of course we all know what happens to bubbles, they eventually burst. In this post I will describe how I think the next AI winter will come about and what to do as a company or individual to insulate yourself from whatever negative consequences will result.

There are no delays

While human consciousness running in a physical body expects the whole universe to conform to its individual will, ignoring the fact that the universe must balance everything, the universe is rather executing its own algorithm and expecting that human consciousness should align with it.

Free will

Consciousness is the only free thing in this observable universe of ours and while the earthly implementation in human bodies is only a shallow reflection of the full power of consciousness, it is not constrained by this limitation of poorly developed human bodies.

The algorithm called life

Life will only do that which is good for us in the final analysis of what goodness is. Life is not arbitrary, it is a well-designed algorithm that seems to give us pain from time to time to adjust us on what it thinks its the right path. Life is some Deep Reinforcement learning algorithm that is optimizing us towards a specific goal. I have written about what this goal could be in a previous work title: Life is technology. Life is not random, it is structured and deliberate. It has a goal! even the evolution of a galaxy has a goal for which life has set for it.

The coming AI arms race

Artificial Intelligence race of today is no different than the pre-1945 nuclear arms race. The same way the physicist of the time struggled to build nuclear weapons to gain an advantage in the world is the same way researchers are struggling to build Artificial Intelligence.